Á. Bálint1, J. Fekete2
1) Óbuda University, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Budapest, HU; 2) Szent István University, Gödöllő, HU

EFFECT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT FOR HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN THE SOILS


Industrial and agricultural activities in the soil cover of the earth cause more and more noticeable environmental load. Therefore, the natural self-purification of soils has been greatly reduced and is decreasing continuously. The soil itself is an essential value as it preserves the traces of land history, the landscape, the cultural and scientific examinations. It is indispensable for the survival of the wildlife, because with the climate it also influences the water cycle and quality.
One of the most important environmental factors is the public transport. The public transport is a polluting source that not only emits greenhouse gases, aldehydes, carbon blacks, dust, but unfortunately many inorganic toxic substances into the environment. The biggest problem with the various inorganic pollutants is that some of them are essential for living organisms, but some of them are also very toxic at very low concentrations. The environmental pressure and pollution caused by heavy metals has become a serious problem since the middle of the previous century. From the point of view of their fate, the soil characteristics are, for example, humus, pH, etc. their role is important. The heavy metal content found in the soil and / or in the soil can easily penetrate the groundwater, which can be transmitted through the animals and / or the plants to the human food chain.
Nowadays, aero-plane is one of the most important device of transport. The main goal was to have the Budapest “Ferihegy” Airport in this area a detrimental effect on its immediate environment. Therefore, it was our aim to examine the soil of the forest near the former “Ferihegy I.”. Our investigations were carried out not far from the then active running runway, in the acacia and beside the road, which was not far from this area. Among the heavy metals, the concentration of cadmium, zinc, manganese, lead, copper and iron was measured and then compared to those from control area.
The examination of the samples has begun with the proper way of storing, preparing and digesting. From the sieved (2 mm) samples the pH value and dry matter content were measured. The samples that went through a smoother sieve (0.20 mm) were digested by a Milestone 1200 Mega Microwave digestion system. After the nitric acid digestion were measured the heavy metal concentration in the soil samples by an “ATI UNICAM 939 FAAS” atomic absorption spectrometer, which was carried out for five elements: iron, lead, copper, zinc, manganese and cadmium with Unicam 939 QZ GF90 graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. The measurement results were recalculated to mg/kg of dry matter content.
The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA with three-factor random block design, using SPSS 14.0 software package for Windows.